Maryam Mirzakhani’s Pioneering Mathematical Legacy


Maryam Mirzakhani’s Pioneering Mathematical Legacy

Posted By beautybykendrac

Maryam Mirzakhani’s Pioneering Mathematical Legacy

The Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani, died Friday at the age of forty, was known to his colleagues as a virtuoso in the dynamics and geometry of complex surfaces, “mathematics science fiction,” said an admirer, and his young daughter Anahita as artist.

At the family home near Stanford University, Mirzakhani spent hours on the floor with paper overly refined paintings, drawing ideas, drawings, diagrams and formulas, often leading Anahita six years, to exclaim: “Oh, Mom is painted again !
Mirzakhani could be private and retired, but she was so indomitable and full of energy, especially at the table.

According to Roya Beheshti, an algebraic inspector at the University of Washington in St. Louis and a lifelong friend, the two talked about mathematics, reading and math have math, sometimes competitive, for several years. The Mirzakhani passion was evident from the beginning.

“Mary’s work was driven by a certain pure joy,” Beheshti said. “A lot of people have said how humble she was, and it’s true. She was very humble.

She was also very, very ambitious. From the beginning, from an early age, it was clear that he had very great goals. “When Mirzakhani was in sixth grade in Tehran, a teacher discouraged his interest in mathematics, and pointed out that he was not a special talent, not the top of the class.

A quarter of a century later, in 2014, she became the first woman (and the first Iranian) to win the Fields medal, the highest honor in mathematics.

Mirzakhani was proud of the compliments, but they were not his main concern. When his thesis director Curtis McMullen of Harvard addressed the Fields medal for his work at the 2014 International Mathematical Congress in Seoul, Mirzakhani sat in the front row with his daughter and her husband, the computer Jan Vondrák of Stanford.

As for the audience, McMullen pointed out that Mirzakhani did not pay attention to his moment of glory, which allowed him to be distracted by a very excited Anahita.

“Some scientists and mathematicians get involved in a problem to go beyond what other people have done, but they measure themselves against others,” McMullen told me. Maryam was not like that.

It would be to participate directly with the scientific challenge, with mathematics, no matter how difficult it was, and really delve into the heart of the matter.

Mathematician Manjul Bhargava of Princeton, who also won a Fields in 2014, said Mirzakhani “was a master of curved spaces.”

As explained by email, “Everyone knows that the shortest distance between two points on a flat surface is a straight line. But if the surface is curved, for example, the surface of a ball or a donut, then , The shortest distance … It will also be along a curved path, and therefore can be more complicated.

Maryam has shown many surprising theorems on shorter paths – called “geodesics” – on curved surfaces, among other notable results in geometry and beyond.

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India to continue to saturate orbits with lot of satellites


India to continue to saturate orbits with lot of satellites

Posted By beautybykendrac

India to continue to saturate orbits with lot of satellites

India, which has recently released a record number of 104 satellites at a time, and continue to do “saturate” the orbits, an American space expert told lawmakers, but said it was for is not a cause for concern. “You do not have to worry about congestion.

We must bear in mind do not understand that these things happen, how they behave so we can help businesses and trade flourish, “said Moriba Jah, Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin School of engineering.

The United States, currently, following 23,000 objects in space. However, with 23,000, followed by current and other objects detected, but not full for various reasons, this poses a huge problem, Jah said. “The other thing is also that we have countries like India.

It just broke the launching record 104 satellites in a single minute a few months ago. They will continue to do and simply saturate the orbits with many satellites, which is not a bad thing, “said Jah.

Before, when space began with Sputnik, there were only a few objects in orbit, has testified before the Subcommittee on Trade, Science and Transportation Agency.

So it was not very difficult to know where things were or where things could be. Tim Ellis, co-founder and general director of relativity, said there is currently a lack of ideals on US sites. For small class launch vehicles to meet polar orbits, retracts and synchronous solar.

“Therefore, many small satellite customers are looking for foreign launches from India, Russia and Europe. The use of an offshore drone launch platform operated under an FAA license could potentially alleviate this problem by allowing That launches in international waters, “said Ellis.

“The concept that we have considered more like the opposite of ships and barges with unmanned jets SpaceX and Blue Origin began to land stages of stimulation valued in relation to the launching of the sea platform. Open-air launch of the West Coast, similar to C-39 Kennedy could be another alternative, “said Ellis.

Senator Ted Cruz said the United States should continue to challenge NASA and the local business community to find new ways to partner to advance their national space policy goals because Congress is never going to fully fund all the priorities of the space community .

“And in anticipation of an expansion of commercial space activity, we also have to consider orbital debris and how it affects the management of exploration traffic and space,” he said.

“There are people who are crazy enough to think that they can change the very nature of space exploration, and if they move on, they could simply,” he added.

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Posted By beautybykendrac


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The Int-Ball is controlled remotely from the Tsukuba JAXA Space Center in Tsukuba, a city in the northern region of Kanto, Japan.

Take photos and videos of the life of the three astronauts on board; The film is then checked in real time by the crew in Japan before being sent to the crew.

The video captured by Int-Ball, which has Japanese subtitles, installs the zoom buzz and Kibo’s inner workings to the International Space Station.

The hum is intended to reduce the time spent by the ISS crew and the conditions of photographing on board the space station; This currently accounts for 10 percent of their working time, according to JAXA.

The Int-Ball unmanned aircraft uses existing technology; Its exterior and interior structures were made by 3D printing. The Japanese space agency says that one of its goals is “to acquire the ability to move anywhere at any time through autonomous flight images and record from any angle.”

They are hoping that this will enhance cooperation between astronauts in ISS and researchers in the field and increase the efficiency of experiments on board.

ISS astronauts with drones
The hum is shown by ISSS with US astronauts Jack Fischer (C) and Peggy Whitson (L).

The first component of the ISS was launched in 1998 and is now the largest spacecraft in low earth orbit, where human space exploration took place. The station measures 357 feet from tip to tip – about the size of a football pitch – and is larger than a six-room house, according to NASA.

The station is a joint venture between the space agency of the United States, Russia, Canada, Japan and Europe. There are three astronauts currently aboard the ISS: two Americans, Jack Fischer and Peggy Whitson and the Russian commander Fyodor Yurchikhin.

On April 24, Whitson became the American astronaut with the longest accumulated time remaining in space; She is expected to return on September 2, during which she spent 635 days in orbit around Earth, 101 days more than the previous record.

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Seizing the opportunity

Bollywood Eduction Hollywood Market People Relationship Travel

Seizing the opportunity

Posted By beautybykendrac

Budget 2015-16 makes a quantum jump in fuelling India’s growth take-off

Union Budgets do not have magical powers to provide economic nirvana. Yet, some Budgets are considered truly transfor­mational. This Budget clearly addresses the nit- ti-gritties towards furthering the government’s growth focus and intent to move away from red tape to facilitate ease of doing business. Key flagship schemes, with specific focus on social issues, a major push on infrastructure, ‘Make in India’ and ‘Invest in India’, while taking care to maintain fiscal discipline are major highlights of this budget. What is especially heartening is the focus on three key areas – JAM Trinity – Jan Dhan, Aadhar and Mobile – to implement direct transfer of benefits and GST – fungibility of Fll & FDI, as part of invest in India.

Growth orientation with emphasis on exe­cution has indeed been one of the key differ­entiating factors of the Budget 2015-16. The backdrop in which the Budget has been pre­sented is indeed unique – unlike the last few years, India is not facing challenging macro-eco­nomic conditions. Sharp moderation in global commodity prices, led by oil had provided head- room for increasing growth-stimulating produc­tive spending, without having to compromise on fiscal discipline. More importantly, with eas­ing interest rate cycle, both monetary and fiscal policy had a rare opportunity to be in perfect harmony with economic revival as its key objec­tive. As such, it was a unique and perfect set­ting for unveiling reforms that would stimulate growth by firing the twin engines of investment and consumption.

The Budget has addressed growth challenges by adopting a two-pronged strategy. At a macro level, the government’s expenditure priori­ties were re-oriented towards productive heads. At a micro level, the government increased its focus on sectors such as housing and roads that have greater absorptive capacity and hence high growth multipliers.

Likewise, at a micro level, the counter-cyclical pump-priming has been targeted at high multi­plier sectors such as roads and housing. The gov­ernment’s ambitious, but highly relevant plan of building 50 million rural and urban houses by 2020 is by far the largest housing project in the world. Further, the plan to complete 100,000 km of road projects and electrify 20,000 villages by 2020 will result in a quantum jump for the entire economy.


Apart from growth focus, the Budget had rnariy elements that distinguished it from trends observed over last few years. The most important deviation was that the Budget was based on credible and realistic arithmetic. Fis­cal deficit as a percentage of GDP has been pro­jected at 3.6 per cent for this year, and the roadmap to reach 3 per cent by 2017-18 is truly commendable.

The government’s motto of empowering state governments is a great development. The Budget upheld the spirit of co-operative federalism by reforming the existing system of fiscal transfers from the Union to the states. The government has decided to increase states’ receipts of tax devolu­tion to an all-time high of 62 per cent, while also restructuring Centrally sponsored schemes to provide greater spending power to the states.


The Budget also laid the foundation for one of the most anticipated structural reforms on indirect taxes – GST. This will put in place a state-of-the-art indirect tax system with a date­line of 1 April, 2016, which will play a trans­formational role. It will definitely boost the economy by developing a ‘common Indian mar­ket’ and reducing the cascading effect on of goods and services.

Most importantly, the government’s intent to reduce corporate tax rate to 25 per cent over the next four years will greatly help India’s prospects as an investment destination. Postponement of applicability of GAAR by two years will be a key positive for foreign companies who are looking for a stable and predictable tax regime.

The surge in investor confidence after elec­tions has been provided a leg up by the gov­ernment’s resolve to transform its ‘Vision into policies’. However, to sustain the momentum, it is important to back it up with sustained delivery. The policies announced in the Bud­get will need concrete steps with time-bound framework for implementation. Most impor­tantly, in order to realise the spending targets, the government will have to ensure that reve­nue inflow through disinvestments is not patchy and back-loaded and that expenditure is closely monitored through quarterly progress reports.

I subscribetotheFM’sstatementthat opportuni­ties arise when opportunities are created. Seizing the opportunity – capre diem – has been achieved through the Budget.

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Blindsided yet again


Blindsided yet again

Posted By beautybykendrac


That government expenditure on India’s healthcare sector is abysmally low and has been so for the past many years, is widely known. Any hopes that the pres­ent government would ramp it up significantly were dashed to pieces with finance minister Arun Jaitley’s Budget speech in Parliament last Saturday. The allocation for 2015-16

stood at slightly over ?33,000 crore, which means it would remain at 2012-13 levels for the coming finan­cial year as well. This is in sharp contrast to the National Health Policy 2015 document, released by the Union government in Decem­ber, where the government expen­diture on healthcare is projected to increase from the current 1.04
per cent of GDP to 2.5 per cent in the next five years. The document also envisages a seven-fold growth of the healthcare industry as a whole (including pharmaceuticals, medical devices, etc) by 2020.

As can be expected, the responses from various segments of the health­care industry ranged from cautious optimism to total disappointment. The CEOs of many companies chose to focus more on general points such as the rollout of goods & ser­vices tax, the slight reduction in corporate tax, etc, rather than talk about their own industry.

SUMIT GHOSHAL [email protected]

Rajiv Nath

forum co-ordinator, AIMED (Association of Indian Med­ical Device Manufacturers): The FM dwelt in some detail about mea­sures              to

encourage manufac­turing. But were    his

proposals at par with the expec­tations gen­erated till now? I am sorry to say, the budget does not match the intentions or opti­mism generated till date. Intentions galore but the fineprint was missing.

Suneeta Reddy

MD, Apollo Hospitals group: Overall, this has been a for­ward-looking and stable Bud­get. A lot more, however, needs to be done in terms of providing physical and educational infrastruc­ture that supports the healthcare sector. This has to be done in partnership with and by giv­ing incentives to the private sector that has been provid­ing nearly 70 per cent of the additional beds in India.

Cautam Khanna

CEO, Hinduja Hospital, Mum­bai: All told, healthcare did not seem a focus area for the government. The total budget of ?33,150 crore is not a significant increase over the pre­vious year.

The ‘ AliMS proposals are good but the tax exemption for health insur­ance will not help those who do rjot have insurance in the first place. Besides, one noticed a lost opportunity in PPP options.

Azad Moopen,

CMD, Aster DM Healthcare: Increase in the visa on arrival facility to nearly 150 countries will have a positive impact , on inflow of tourists to India on a broader level and will benefit the health­care sec­tor by more flow for

health tourism. Insurance coverage would get a boost with the tax exemptions on health insurance premiums being hiked from ?15,000 to ?25,000.


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Rich on intent


Rich on intent

Posted By beautybykendrac



Going into the first full-fledged Bud­get of the Modi government, expecta­tions were running high, almost as if one Budget will address all the lingering prob­lems of the economy. Of course, it was not to be. However, in my view, the Budget has been reasonably good in several regards. First, it is growth-enhancing in the near-term, given the relaxation in the fiscal consolidation road map and this is done with credible fiscal math – something which has been missing in the previ­ous Budgets. Modest relaxation in fiscal targets should not upset ratings agencies or monetary policymakers because, first, inflation risks are very contained and second, extra spending is going in the area of infrastructure (especially roads, railways) which is capacity augment­ing. Indeed, setting up of National Investment Fund, which can raise capital for financing infra-spending and revisiting the PPP model showcases the government’s commitment to drive infrastructure sector.

From the medium term perspective, the areas which are accorded high priority (apart from infrastructure) are GST implementation, direct benefits transfer through Jan Dhan Yojna, addressing the issue of black money, and enhanc­ing ease of doing business. As regards GST, the FM has responsibly made provisions for GST com­pensation to states, given that the GST Amend­ment Bill is already in the Parliament. Further, he is sticking to the deadline of April 2016 for the roll-out of the GST.

Equally encouraging is the fact that the gov­ernment is making swift progress on Jan Dhan (which has already covered 125 million fami­lies) and cash transfers have already started in the case of LPG subsidies. Perhaps, food sub­sidy could be the next area, as ultimate aim of the government is to provide leak-proof social benefits to people of India.

Right from day one, this government seems to be committed to enhancing ease of doing business and this is very much part of ‘make in India’ and ‘minimum government, maximum governance’ initiatives of the prime minister. The FM talks about setting up an e-business portal, which would integrate several regula­tory permissions in one source, plan to intro­duce a resolution of disputes bill, to streamline institutional arrangements for resolution of dis­putes pertaining to government contracts. This
should reduce cost overruns and delays in infra­structure projects.

In’addition, giving a roadmap for corporate tax reduction over four years and fixing the inverted duty structure (example for electronics industry) are moves that clearly show that the government is taking a holistic approach to ‘Make in India’ – which is infrastructure improvement, tax incentives, and skill enhancement.

On the issue of black money, the finance min­ister plans to introduce a ‘benami bill’, which would confiscate ‘benami property’ and provide for prosecution. The aim is to ensure that real estate transactions come under the tax net.


Apart from these focus areas, there are sev­eral other areas that deserve mention­ing. There is a clear effort to boost financial savings in the country through tax incentives for health insurance, pension. Sovereign gold bond is also aimed at reducing the allure of physical gold and encouraging financial sav­ings. This could bring a lot of unproductive sav­ings into main stream. Secondly, the FM stated that the process of formalising a new monetary policy framework is complete and he would be looking to set up a monetary policy commit­tee, much on the lines of the central banks in the West.

In the coming year, the government is also looking to bring in a bankruptcy law (as per global standards). This is a long-awaited reform and structurally positive.

An area where the Budget has disappointed is that not much attention has been paid to the PSUs’ recapitalisation (provision for recapital­isation is quite inadequate). Also, the issue of stressed assets, such as gas-based projects, has not been addressed properly. Another area where a lot could have been done was in the afford­able housing segment. The FM was surprisingly silent on this.

Still, in all, a lot has been achieved in this Budget. It holds the promise of a lot to come in the coming years. It is a process of nation-build­ing and, therefore, the journey cannot stop with one Budget. I remain a lot more positive about the intent of this government, which is clearly committed to taking India to the double-digit growth path and I see that in every action they are taking. We can only complain about pace, but surely not direction and intent. ♦



Satish Reddy

chairman, Dr Red­dy’s Laboratories:

The Budget is a clear one, with a focussed growth trajectory for the next 3-4 years, in line with the expectations of India Inc. The sig­nificant outlays on infrastructure (?70,000 crore) and power projects that will provide a much needed additional 4k MW, are in the right direction towards revitalising the investment climate in the economy.

Kiran Mazumdar Shaw

chairperson, Biocon Ltd: “FM’s speech was clear and com­pelling showing a positive roadmap for the Indian Econ­omy. However, I expected more for the implementa­tion of the flagship ‘Make in India’ programme. The ‘Skill in India’, ‘Swachh Bharat’ and a new fund for start-ups is a welcome move; however, I expected more enabling provisions that would encourage investor funding.



chairman, Wock- hardt Ltd: The Budget pro­vides direction, a way forward and vision of the develop­ment agenda of the govern­ment. Collec­tively, many steps taken together, gives me confidence and comfort that we are on the right track for the next five years. India will grow and grow fast, likely to be 10 per cent GDP growth


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Posted By beautybykendrac


Seen as anti-poor or anti-farmer. In the railway Budget too, against the expectation of an increase in the passenger fare, what we got was a sta­tus quo. Just before the Budget, the Opposition had united to give the impression that the Land Acquisi­tion Act as anti-farmer, pushing the government on the back foot. After the heavy drubbing it got in Delhi assembly elections, the ruling party may have thought of not taking any chances, lest its policy may be con­strued as anti-people. This explains why the government did not touch upon as sensitive an issue such as the selling of loss-making public sector units or fixing a disinvestment target in the speech.

The government did give some hint that it planned to decrease cor­porate tax from 30 per cent to 25 per cent – perhaps in the next four years.

Bank Nifty CNX Pharma Finance Index CNX Service CNX Auto Index IT i

MNC 0.72

But there would be no change in the tax rate for the next year. While reducing the tax rate, the govern­ment is also looking at doing away with certain exemptions, to ensure that its tax revenue would not be impacted. But this is^for the future.

Need corrective steps

Also, the fm did not hint whether the reduction of tax from 30 per cent to 25 per cent would be in one go or would it be gradual over the next four years. “The announcement to reduce the corporate tax over the next four years to 25 per cent is a welcome one,” says Adi Godrej, chairman, Godrej group. “However, there has been no incentive for manufactur­ing in this Budget. In fact, because of the surcharge, taxes on the man­ufacturing sector have increased. I do hope the finance minister reduces this surcharge on the manu­facturing sector and takes some corrective steps before the Budget is passed.”

Many experts are calling this Budget positive and believe that this would be the game changer for the country. “The Budget is quite positive, aiming at 8.5 per cent GDP growth,” says Milind Barve, MD, HDFC AMC. “At the same time, the FM has laid down a clear road map for deficits. What is welcome is that the deficit tar­gets are sound, as the minis­ter has made fair assumptions for revenue pro­jections, as also increased capi­tal expenditure, which would

help create jobs and assets.”

But, during the short term, the market needed a big push to lift sen­timent, as India Inc’s earnings for December were not up to the mark. Everyone was looking to the Budget to lift sentiment, but it looks as if it may not happen. Now, what is cru­cial for the market is to watch how the government would handle the land acquisition ordinance bill and insurance bill, which would give enough hint about the government’s ability to push reforms and, in turn, India Inc’s earnings.

The Budget may not lift India Inc’s earnings to any great extent. Today, the market looks expensive, as India Inc’s earnings have not grown as much as many were expecting. In fact, there is a high possibility that India Inc’s earnings may get revised downward. Keeping this in mind, the market may move only in a narrow zone, with a southward bias. While the Budget is good for the long term, what the market needed and was looking for was a short-term push, which has not been forthcoming.

♦ SUNIL DAMANIA [email protected]


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Lukewarm and sedentary

Eduction Fasion Hollywood Relationship Travel

Lukewarm and sedentary

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Ultimately, the stock market remained open on Budget day, as SEBI, after a lot of dil­ly-dallying, gave special permission to exchanges to stay open, despite it being a Saturday. It was good for the investors, as they could take a position even as the Budget speech was on. In fact, Budget day turned out to be a highly volatile trading day, the likes of which we have not seen in the recent past. The mar­ket moved between the green zone and the red zone, creating hope and despair among investors. When the finance minister started making his speech, the Sensex was at 29476. From there, it dipped below 28000 by the time FM was through with his speech. Ultimately, the index recov­ered some lost ground and closed in the green zone at 29361 – a notch below where it stood when the Bud­get speech began, clearly suggesting that the market was giving a thumbs down to the Budget.

Of course, the market was hoping for a Dream Budget from the FM, as the macros were all in favour of the government – there was a fall in the price of international commodities; the stock market was buoyant; and, last but not the least important, a majority in the Lok Sabha had given enough indication that this govern­ment could push big reforms. “The government was playing the game for a test victory, while the market probably expected a T20 spectacle,” suggests Nilesh Shah, managing director, Kotak Mutual Fund. But as we had even stated in our Bud­get analysis last year, the days of big bang reforms are over, as gov­ernments these days have to buy consensus and/or build it, which takes time.

So, the high expectations of the Budget did not fructify. In fact, there is very little in the Budget that can cheer the stock market, as most of
the announcements will evolve over the long term and it would take time for the effect to percolate down to real economy and India Inc’s earn­ings. “The policy framework is being redesigned to transit India from a command economy to co-operative federalism; from job seeker to job creators,” says Shah of Kotak. “This Budget is seeking to create a uni­fied market to generate and percolate overall growth by means of GST. The beneficial impact of the Budget on the economy will be reflected over the next few quarters.”

Normally, a stock market looks for reforms like a disinvestment target, lower taxes and so on. But nothing of that sort was seen in this Budget. After many years, the finance minis­ter did not touch upon the disinvest­ment target in the Budget speech. In the Budget document, it has been put at ?69,500 crore. In the last Bud­get, Jaitley had talked about a reduc­tion of government stake in public sector banks but this time he did not even touch upon it. In the last Bud­get, the FM also talked about merg­ers between public sector banks and
also about non-voting shares to be issued by the public sector in such a way as to ensure that the govern­ment can retain majority control and yet raise money.

But, this time, his silence on these aspects creates doubt whether the government was serious about taking these stated measures mentioned last year. What the finance minister said in the Budget was about holding and investment companies for banks, but again, he did not give any timeline for the same. One is not even sure whether this will happen during the present government’s regime.

Welcome step

So, in a way, there is nothing in this Budget for the stock market to cheer about. Of course, the minister did talk about quite a few macro factors that reassured the audience – such as the reference to GST roll-out by 1 April 2016. Had he not mentioned it, investors would have become ner­vous. Even the GAAR deferral by two years is a welcome step for the stock market. But these two measures were already in the list of things to hap­pen and, hence, a mention of it did not create any positive sentiment.

What has not figured in the Bud­get is the long-term capital gains on equity. There were many who feared that the government would bring in long-term capital gains on equity in line with other capital assets and, thereby, do away with the security transaction tax. But the FM may have thought that the time is not condu­cive for a trade-off, as the tax reve­nue from STT is quite robust. Also, since the stock market was doing well, it made more sense not to dis­turb the equilibrium. Jaitley proudly


announced that India’s stock mar­ket was the second best performing market in the world. He believes that this sentiment would continue and, hence, the budgeting for higher rev­enue from STT. Next year’s target for STT has been put at ?6,531 crore, as against the revised estimate of ?5,992 crore for 2014-15.

It gives one a feeling that the gov­ernment has become a little cautious about pushing reforms, which are


Last Budget to this Budget
Nifty 50 companies performance

Company name % gain
Induslnd Bank 71.0
Lupin 68.1
Axis Bank 64.5
Kotak Mahindra Bank 61.2
Cipla 56.4
Hindustan Unilever 44.0
Maruti Suzuki India 43.0
Tech Mahindra 41.6
Infosys 39.5
Asian Paints 39.5
HCL Technologies 37.2
Tata Motors 30.9
HDFC 30.5
HDFC Bank 30.1
Bharat Petroleum Corporation 28.5
Dr. Reddys Laboratories 26.3
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries 25.4
Ultratech Cement 24.9
ICICI Bank 24.6
Ambuja Cements 23.8
Wipro 21.0
Zee Entertainment Enterprises 20.9
State Bank of India 18.5
ACC 15.1
IDFC 14.3
Power Grid Corporation of India 14.0
Tata Consultancy Services 13.8
Grasim Industries 13.4
Bank Of Baroda 12.2
Mahindra & Mahindra 10.8
Hero MotoCorp 10.1
Bharat Heavy Electricals 7.5
Larsen & Toubro 6.8
Bharti Airtel 6.6
Coal India 6.5
ITC 5.6
NTPC 3.1
Bajaj Auto 0.1
Punjab National Bank -9.4
GAIL (India) -10.8
Reliance Industries -13.2
Hindalco Industries -13.3
Tata Power Company -18.0
Oil & Natural Gas Corporation -19.6
NMDC -19.6
Sesa Sterlite -26.1
Cairn India -27.9
DLF -30.1
Tata Steel -31.9
jindal Steel & Power -34.9



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